What is Subject Verb Agreement in Hindi?

Definition of Subject Verb Agreement:

          The verb must agree with the Subject in person and number i.e. a Finite verb must be of the same person and number as its subject.

(किसी भी Sentence में Subject के number तथा person के अनुसार verb का use ‘Subject Verb Agreement’ कहलाता है।)

Examples:

·        He                      comes            to school

          ↓                        ↓
       (Sing. Sub.)      (Sing. Verb)

          [यदि Subject ‘Singular’ हो, तो ‘Singular verb’ का ही use किया जाता है।]

·        They                   come               to school.

              ↓                        ↓                                   

           (Plu. Sub.)          (Plu. Verb)

          [यदि Subject ‘Plural’ हो, तो ‘Plural verb ‘ का ही प्रयोग किया जाता है।]

·        Singular nouns/pronouns and Plural nouns/pronouns के according verb का use किया जाता है।

Rule – 1

          Two or more singular nouns/pronouns connected by ‘and’ usually take a Plural verb.

(जब दो या दो से अधिक singular subjects को ‘and’ से जोड़ा जाता है, तो verb हमेशा plural number में use की जाती है।)

Examples:

·        He and I are good friends.

·        Oil and Water do not mix.

·        Rohit, Raman and Sumit are engineers.

·        Tobacco and Alcohol are injurious to health.

Rule – 2

          If two or more singular noun/pronoun connected by ‘and’ are used to describe the same person, animal, object or idea, the subject takes a singular verb.

          यदि दो या दो से अधिक Noun या Adjectives को ‘and’ से जोड़ा जाता है लेकिन वे एक ही व्यक्ति, वस्तु या idea को प्रदर्शित करता है, तो singular verb का use किया जाता है। ऐसे nouns को Parcel Subject भी कहा जाता है।

eg. Slow and steady, Bread and butter, Hammer and sickle, Rice and curry, Truth and honesty, Crown and glory, Age and experience, Eggs and bacon, Long and short, Screaming and shouting, Coming and going etc.

Examples:

·        Slow and steady wins the race.

·        Bread and butter is his favourite food.

·        Horse and carriage is standing at the door.

·        Rice and curry is a popular dish.         

Rule – 3

          जब दो nouns, article या possessive pronouns के repetition से दो different persons को refer करें, तो plural verb का use किया जाता है।

Examples:

·        The teacher and the guide are dead.

·        The poet and the writer were honoured.

·        My guardian and my father want me to go to the U.S.A.

·        The poet and the philosopher are no more.

·        A black and a white dog guard the house.

Rule – 4

          Article/Possesive Pronoun + subject + and + subject + Singular Verb

 Examples:

·           The long and short of it is that I don’t want to go there.

·        A black and a white dog guards the house.

        Rule – 5

          We always use a singular verb after a subject that starts with ‘each, every, no, either or neither’ etc.

Examples:

·        No smoking and drinking is allowed.

·        Every man, woman, and child was given a life preserver.

·        Each graduate and undergraduate is required to pass the exam.

·        Each book and notebook in this bag belongs to me.

·        Either of the doors opens in the hall.

·        Neither of his parents wants to send him abroad.

         Note: A plural verb is used when ‘each’ follows a plural noun.

Examples:

·        The boys each have a bicycle.

·        The women each have a hand-bag.

Rule – 6

          यदि वाक्य का subject Indefinite pronouns like ‘everyone, everybody, everything, someone, somebody, something, no one, nobody, nothing, anyone, anybody, anything’ etc. हो, तो singular verb का use किया जाता है।

Examples:

·        Nobody is here.

·        Everybody helps when there is a crisis.

·        Somebody wants to speak to you.

Rule – 7

          When two subjects are joined by ‘or, nor, either____or, neither____nor, not only____but also’ etc., the verb agrees with the second subject.

(यदि दो subjects को ‘or, nor, either____or, neither____nor, not only____but also’ etc. से जोड़ा जाता है, तो verb second subject के अनुसार use की जाती है।)

Examples:

·        Our happiness or our sorrow is largely due to our actions.

·        Either you or I am mistaken.

·        His brother or his sister is arriving here tonight.

·        Neither the teacher nor the students are responsible.

·        Not only Kishor but also his neighbours have complained about the noise.

·        Neither his brother nor his parents were with him.

Rule – 8

          यदि दो subjects ‘as well asexceptin addition toalong with, together with, rather than, accompanied by, like, unlike, no less than, nothing but, withbutbesides, except, including’ etc. connectives से जुडे़ हुए हो, तो  verb first subject के अनुसार use की जाती है।)

Examples:

·        Justice as well as mercy allows it.

·        Silver as well as Cotton has fallen in price.

·        The politician along with the newsmen is expected shortly.

·        Everyone except me was having fun.

·        Maruti in addition to Tata is lowering its car prices to encourage better sales.

·        English besides Hindi and Sanskrit is taught to the students.  

·        The captain along with the sailors was drowned.                      

·        My father unlike my uncles is very strict.

·        Mr. D’souza, accompanied by his wife is travelling to India.

·        Patience in addition to hardwork is needed for success.

·        A dictionary besides all the course books was given to him.

·        All the girls including Trisha are talking the test.

Rule – 9

          A singular verb is used with the measurement of money, time and distance.

Examples:

·        One hundred dollars is a lot of money for a bottle of wine.

·        Two hours is a long time to wait to see a doctor.

·        93,000,000 miles is the distance from the sun to the earth.

·        Six years is a long time to stay away from.

·        Forty kilometres is not a short distance.

Rule – 10

          The following words almost always use the plural form of verbs: ‘all, both, few, many, several, some’ etc.

Examples:

·        Some people in my office are very annoying.

·        Few mountain climbers have successfully reached the peak of Mt. Everest. 

Rule – 11

          There का use यदि Introductory subjects के रूप में होता है, तो There के साथ verb का use, There के बाद प्रयुक्त noun or pronoun के number तथा person के according की जाती है।

Examples:

·        There are many unverified legends about the life of Shakespeare.

·        In the old building hangs the new painting.

·        There are almost seven million volumes in the main library.

·        Where are Mary’s brothers?

·        There were thousands of people at the parade.

·        In the small pond swim four large fish.

·        There is no one left in the room.

·        In later life comes great wisdom.

·        Near the lake stand two old banyan trees.

Rule – 12

          When the word number is preceded with the word ‘a’, use a plural verb.  When the word number is preceded with the word ‘the‘, use a singular verb.

          A number of का use plural countable noun के साथ होता है तथा इसके साथ plural verb का use होता है।

          The number of का use एक निश्चित संख्या के अर्थ में होता है इसके बाद plural subject का use होता है तथा इसका use sentence के subject के रूप में होने पर, इसके साथ singular verb का use होता है।

          A number of + Plural Noun + Plural Verb

          The number of + Plural Noun + Singular Verb

Examples:

·        A number of people are waiting to see you. 

·        The number of stars in the sky seems countless.

·        A number of questions were asked to him by the interviewer.

·        The number of student present in the class is eleven.

Rule – 13

          Always use a singular verb after a subject that starts with ‘Either of, Neither of, Each of, Every one of, One of’ etc.

          यदि ‘Either of, Neither of, Each of, Every one of, One of’ etc. के बाद plural noun हो, तो sentence का subject singular ही होता है। अत: इनके साथ singular verb का use किया जाता है।

Examples:

·        Neither of them is available to speak right now.

·        Either of us is capable of doing the job.

·        Either of the five members is at fault. 

·        One of the five members is at fault.

·        Neither of them takes the exam.

Rule – 14

          The following nouns are always plural and always take a plural verb.

          कुछ Nouns का use हमेशा plural form में ही होता है। इन Nouns के अन्त में लगे ‘s’ को हटाकरइन्हें singular नहीं बनाया जाता है। ये दिखने में भी plural लगते हैं, एवं इनका use भी plural की तरह होता है।

          They are ‘Scissors, Tongs (चिमटा), Spectacles, Binoculars (दूरबीन), Trousers, Pants, Knickers, Breeches, Shorts, Pincers, Bellows (फूँकनी), Pyjamas, Gallows (फाँसी का फंदा), Fangs (डंक), Goggles, Sunglasses, Alms (दान), Amends (संशोधन) and other nouns used in a pair.

Note:- A pair of scissors + Singular verb

Examples:

·        The scissors are dull. (Or, The pair of the scissors is dull.)

·        Do you wear trousers?

·        Where are my binoculars?

·        His pants were torn.

·        Alms were given to the beggars.

·        The embers of the fire were still burnings.

·        He wears a pair of spectacles when he goes outside.

·        A pair of scissors was given to her.

·        A pair of trousers was found in his bag.

Rule – 15

          The following nouns though plural in form, are used in singular.

          कुछ Nouns दिखने में plural लगते हैं लेकिन अर्थ में singular होते है। इसके use हमेशा singular verb का use होता है।

          They are ‘Quarters (house), News, Wages, Measles, Mumps, Billiards, Draughts (a table game), Mathematics, Physics, Economics, Civics, Mechanics, Politics, Statistics, Innings, Ethics, Rickets, Diabetes, Shingles, Athletics, Linguistics’ etc.

          बीमारियों के नाम: Measles, Mumps, Rickets, Shingles etc.

          देश के नाम: The United States, The West Indies etc.

          पुस्तकों के नाम: The Arabian Nights, Three Muskeeters etc.

          खेल के नाम: Billiards, Darts, Draughts etc.

          विषयों के नाम: Physics, Economics, Civics, Statistics, Politics, Linguistics etc.    

Examples:

·        No news is good news.

·        Billiards is a costly game.

·        The wages of sin is death.

·        Physics is my favourite study.

·        Diabetes has become very common in our country. 

·        Measles is a dreadful disease.

·        Calculus requires great skill in algebra.

Rule – 16

          Certain nouns of Latin and Greek origin have unusual singular and plural forms.

          Singular – Plural

¨       Agendum – Agenda

¨       Alumnus   Alumni

¨       Analysis – Analyses

¨       Bacterium – Bacteria

¨       Basis – Bases

¨       Bureau – Bureaux, Bureaus

¨       Crisis – Crises

¨       Criterion – Criteria

¨       Curriculum – Curricula, Curriculums

¨       Dictum – Dicta

¨       Formula – Formulae, Formulas

¨       Fungus – Fungi

¨       Index –   Indices, Indexes

¨       Medium – Media

¨       Memorandum – Memoranda

¨       Nucleus – Nuclei

¨       Oasis – Oases

¨       Phenomenon – Phenomena

¨       Radius – Radii

¨       Stratum – Strata

¨       Stimulus – Stimuli

¨       Syllabus – Syllabi

Examples:

·        The syllabi have been revised.

·        The crises were not properly managed.

Rule – 17

          Mathematical expressions of subtraction and division require singular verbs, while expressions of addition or multiplication take either ‘singular or plural verbs’.

Examples:

·        Ten divided by two equals five.

·        Five times seven equals (or equal) thirty-five.

·        Two and two makes (or make) four.

Rule – 18

          यदि कोई Noun के रूप में Infinitive, Gerund, Phrase, Clause use किए जाते है, तो उसे singular subject की तरह use किया जाता है और verb भी singular ही use की जाती है।

Examples:

·        Hiding your mistakes does not make them go away.

·        Swimming is a good exercise.

·        Collecting paintings is one of her hobbies.

·        Asking questions was not allowed in the class.

·        Writing poems gives him pleasure.

·        Reading books is a good way to improve English.

·        What I need is to be loved.

·        Whether there is any connection between the two events is unknown.

·        What you have said is true.

·        What they need is food and shelter.

Rule – 19

          Collective Nouns:                   

          It generally takes a singular verb.

          It takes a plural verb if there are argument,

           agreement and division in the group.

          Collective Noun के साथ हमेशा singular verb का use किया जाता है। लेकिन अगर Collective Noun में मतभेद हो या प्रत्येक व्यक्ति की बात की होती है, तो plural verb, plural adjective एवं plural pronoun का use किया जाता है।

Examples:

·        The committee comprises eight members.

·        The team has played really very well.

·        The staff are fighting over a trivial issue.

·        The government is planning to raise taxes.

·        The jury are divided in their opinion.

·        The audience have taken their seats.

·        The herd of cows is grazing in the field.

·        The committee has unanimously taken its decision.

·        The Parliament makes laws for the nation.

·        The Parliament are divided over the bill.

Rule – 20

          Many + Plural Noun + Plural Verb

          Many  a + Singular Noun + Singular Verb

Examples:

·        Many houses have been built by the builder.

·        Many students have passed.

·        Many a student is standing in the canteen.

·        Many flowers fade away unseen.

·        Many a flower fades away unseen.

·        Many men were killed the war.

·        Many man was killed the war.

Rule – 21

Examples:

·        Twenty percent of the houses have been sold.

·        Two-third of the money has already been spent.

·        Half of the cakes were eaten.

·        Forty percent of the population was illiterate.

·        Thirty percent of our employees are post gradutes.

·        Thirty percent of the money was paid to them in advance.

·        One-third of our employees work over time regularly.

·        Two-thirds of the milk was used to prepare sweets.

Rule – 22

          Some of + Uncountable Noun + Singular Verb

          Some of + Plural Noun + Plural Verb

Examples:

·        Some of the money has been deposited in his bank.

·        Some of the grain was stored in containers.

·        Some of the questions were asked by him.

·        Some of his friends live in Canada.

Rule – 23

          यदि एक Relative Pronoun (who, which, that etc.के द्वारा एक subject को एक verb से जोड़ा जाता है, तो verb उस subject के अनुसार use की जाती है, जो उस Relative Pronoun का antecedent हो।

Examples:

·        She is one of the noblest women who lived on this earth.

·        I am not one of those who deceive others.

·        Those who work hard, succeed.

·        The man who lives in this house is a farmer.

·        The men who live in this house is a farmer.

Rule – 24

          All का use uncountable के अर्थ में हो, तो इसे singular माना जाता है तथा इसके साथ singular verb का use होता है।

          All का use ‘व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं की संख्या’ का बोध कराने के लिए हो, तो इसे plural माना जाता है, तथा इसके साथ plural verb का use होता है।

Examples:

·        All is well that ends well.

·        All are well at home.

Rule – 25

          कुछ nouns uncountable होते हैं। इनका use केवल singular form में ही किया जाता है। इनके साथ Article ‘a/an’ का use भी नहीं किया जाता है।

          They are ‘Scenery, Poetry, Furniture, Advice, Information, Hair, Business, Mischief, Bread, Stationery, Crockery, Luggage, Baggage, Postage, Knowledge, Wastage, Money, Jewellery, Breakage, Equipment, Etiquette, Evidence, Percentage, Dirt, Dust, Traffic, Electricity, Music, Confectionery, Pottery, Bakery, Fuel, Paper’ etc. इनके साथ हमेशा singular verb का use किया जाता है।

Examples:

·        The scenery of Kashmir is very charming.

·        I have no information about her residence.

·        The mischief committed by him is unpardonable.

·        His hair is black.

·        I have bought some equipment that I needed for the project.

·        The furniture was made of wood.

·        Learn some etiquette.

Note:

          इन nouns का plural form नहीं होता है।

          इनके साथ singular verb का use होता है।

          Few, Many, Both, Each, Every, A/An का use इन nouns के साथ नहीं किया जाता है।

Examples:

·        He has good news for you.

·        His luggage was stolen at the bus-stop.

Rule – 26

          Most of + Plural Noun + Plural Verb

          Most of + Uncountable Noun + Singular Verb

Examples:

·        Most of her time was spent at home.

·        Most of their products are expensive.

·        Most of the girls want to learn English.

·        Most of his time is spent at home.

Rule – 27

          Singular Noun + after + Singular Noun + Singular Verb

Examples:

·        House after house was set on fire.

·        Girl after girl is coming.

Rule – 28

          The + Adjective + Plural Verb

Examples:

·        The rich are not as happy as they seen to be.

·        The honest are respected.

AarambhTV Team
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