What is Pronoun in Hindi?

Definition of Pronoun:     

     A pronoun is a word which is used in place of a noun and used to avoid the repetition of words.

     (Pronoun उस शब्द को कहते हैं, जो किसी Noun के बदले में प्रयोग किया जाता है।)

Examples of Pronoun:

  • Raju is my friend. He is a teacher.
  • Khushboo is a student. She is intelligent.
  • This is a bench. It is new.
  • There are fifty girls in my office.  They are laborious.
  • I know Trisha. She lives in my neighborhood.

Kinds of Pronoun

     There are ten types of Pronoun:

1.  Personal Pronoun (पुरुषवाचक सर्वनाम)

2.  Reflexive Pronoun ( निजवाचक सर्वनाम)

3.  Emphatic Pronoun (निश्चितवाचक सर्वनाम)

4.  Possessive Pronoun (अधिकारवाचक सर्वनाम)

5.  Demonstrative Pronoun (संकेतवाचक सर्वनाम)

6.  Interrogative Pronoun (प्रश्नवाचक सर्वनाम)   

7.  Relative Pronoun (संबंधवाचक सर्वनाम)

8.  Indefinite Pronoun ( निश्चयवाचक सर्वनाम)

9.  Distributive Pronoun (वितरणवाचक सर्वनाम)

10. Reciprocal Pronoun (परस्परवाचक सर्वनाम)

1. Personal Pronoun

     ‘I, We, You, He, She, It and They’ are known as Personal Pronouns.

     Pronouns which are used in place of names, persons or things are called Personal Pronoun. 

     (वह सर्वनाम जो किसी व्यक्ति या वस्तु के लिए प्रयोग किया जाता है, पुरुषवाचक सर्वनाम कहलाता है।)

× First Person – Pronouns ‘I and We’ denote the person or persons speaking.

× Second Person – Pronoun ‘You’ denotes the person or persons spoken to.

× Third Person – Pronouns ‘He, She, It and They’ denote the person or persons spoken about.

Examples:

  • She has lost her purse.
  • like it.
  • They are going to Ahmedabad to see her brother.
PersonsNominative/Subjective CaseObjective CasePossessiveAdjectivePossessivePronounReflexive Pronoun
FirstImemyminemyself
Weusouroursourselves
SecondYouyouyouryoursyourself
Youyouyouryoursyourselves
ThirdHehimhishishimself
Sheherherhersherself
Itititsitself
Oneoneone’soneself
Theythemtheirtheirsthemselves

(A) Nominative/Subjective Case – I, We, You, He, She, It, They etc.

  • I teach English. ()
  • My teach English.(�)
  • Me teach English. (�)
  • Mine teach English. (�)
  • They saw many buildings. ()

(B) Objective Case – me, us, you, him, her, it, one, them etc.

  • I teach they. (�)
  • I teach them. ()
  • I liked him. ()
  • She abused her. ()

(C) Possessive Adjectives – my, our, your, his, her, its, their, one’s etc.

  • This is my book.
  • This is your pen.

(D) Possessive Pronouns – mine, ours, yours, his, hers, theirs etc.

  • This pen is yours.
  • These books are not mine.
  • Ours is a great country.

(E) Reflexive Pronouns – myself, ourselves, yourselves, himself, herself, itself, themselves, oneself etc.

  • He killed himself.
  • I washed the car myself.
  • You have to drive yourself.
  • She baked a cake herself.

Uses of ‘It’

     ‘It’ is used for Singular Neuter Gender Noun but Pronoun ‘It’ has the following special uses:

(i) Sometimes ‘It’ is not used just for one noun, but for the idea of the whole sentence. (कभी-कभी It का प्रयोग केवल किसी एक Noun के लिए नहीं होता, बल्कि पूरे वाक्य के idea के लिए होता है।)

  • Ram speaks fluently. I know it.
  • I am not to blame. You know it.

(ii)  ‘It’ is used for animals and birds.

  • It is a cat.
  • It is a lion.
  • It is a sparrow.
  • It is a parrot.
  • It is an ostrich.

(iii) For a child, when ignorant of his gender-

  • The baby was sleeping and its nurse was watching it.
  • The baby is crying because it is hungry.
  • The baby is crying because its toys have broken.

(iv) Natural Incident – जैसे season, weather, earthquake etc. or time, day, year को बताने के लिए ‘It’ का use किया जाता है।

  • It is raining.
  • It is thundering.
  • It snowed last night.
  • It is morning.
  • It is July.
  • It is Monday.
  • It is nine O’clock.

(v) किसी Lifeless वस्तु के लिए ‘It’ का use किया जाता है।

  • It is a pencil.
  • It is a table.
  • It is a computer.

 (vi) कुछ Phrases में भी ‘It’ का use होता है।

  • Make a clean breast of it. (किसी बात को स्वीकार करना)
  • You are in for it. (तुम पर बुरे दिन आने वाले हैं।)

2. Reflexive Pronoun

     Pronouns ‘myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves, himself, herself, itself themselves’ are known as Reflexive Pronouns.

     These pronouns reflect the action of the verb on the subject itself.

     (जब वाक्य का subject and object एक ही व्यक्ति हो, तो निजवाचक सर्वनाम का use होता है।)

Examples:

  • The lion fell and hurt itself.
  • The man killed himself.
  • I taught myself.
  • She asked herself a question.
  • We should help ourselves.

3. Emphatic Pronoun  

     Emphatic Pronouns are used for the sake of emphasis or nouns or pronouns.

     (जब Reflexive Pronoun, Noun या Pronoun पर ज़ोर देने के लिए प्रयोग किया जाए, तब निश्चितवाचक सर्वनाम कहलाता है।)

Examples:

  • He himself went to market.
  • myself wash up my plates.
  • The boy himself has spoiled his life.
  • myself will do it.
  • She herself believes in superstitions.

4. Possessive Pronoun  

     Pronoun which is used to denote possession or ownership is known as a Possessive Pronoun.

     (जिस सर्वनाम का प्रयोग अधिकार या स्वामित्व का बोध कराने के लिए किया जाता हो, उसे अधिकारवाचक सर्वनाम कहा जाता है।)

Examples:

  • This note is mine.
  • These tables are yours.    
  • This book is hers.
  • That is ours.
  • Those are theirs.

5. Demonstrative Pronoun  

     ‘This, That, These, Those’            

     Demonstrative pronouns point out the persons or things for which they stand.

     (जिस Pronoun का प्रयोग किसी व्यक्ति या वस्तु को सूचित/इंगित/निर्देशित करने के लिए किया जाता है, उसे संकेतवाचक सर्वनाम कहते है।)

Examples:

  • This is a good book.         
  • These are sweet mangoes.
  • Those were sour grapes.
  • These are more useful than that.
  • This question is difficult to answer.
  • That man was very intelligent.

6. Interrogative Pronoun  

     ‘What, Which, Who, Whom, Whose’

     The pronoun which is used to ask a question is known an Interrogative Pronoun.

     (जिस Pronoun का प्रयोग प्रश्न पूछने के लिए किया जाता है , उसे प्रश्नवाचक सर्वनाम कहते हैं।)

Examples:

  • Who are you?
  • Who is he?
  • Whom were you speaking to?
  • Whose is this book?
  • Which do you prefer?
  • What is the matter?
  • What did she say?
  • Which is the right answer?
  • Who will teach us?
  • Whom did you see?

7. Relative Pronoun  

     ‘That, Which, Who, Whom, Whose’

     The Relative Pronoun stands instead of a noun and also joins sentences.

     (जब who, whom, which, whose, that, Nouns के स्थान पर आकर Nouns की repetition नहीं होने दें और ये दो वाक्यों को जोड़ दें, तब ये संबंधवाचक सर्वनाम कहलाते हैं।)

Examples:

  • The dog which is mad should be shot dead.
  • Rakesh who is a doctor, has earned a lot of money.
  • The people who live upstairs are very friendly.
  • I know the man whose car was stolen.
  • The book that I bought is very costly.
  • The student who is diligent, succeeds in the examination.
  • The candidate whom they had called for interview, has not appeared yet.
  • The words whose print is in bold letters, are to be understood.
  • This is the house which made of stone.

8. Indefinite Pronoun  

     ‘One, someone, somebody, something, no one, none, nobody, nothing, anyone, anybody, anything, everybody, everyone, everything, some, few, little, many, much, all, several’ etc.

     Indefinite Pronoun refers to persons or things in a vague (अस्पष्ट) or general way. They do not refer them in particular.

     (जिस Pronoun से किसी निश्चित व्यक्ति या वस्तु का बोध नहीं हो, उसे अनिश्चयवाचक सर्वनाम कहते है।)

Examples:

  • One must mind one’s own business.
  • None of them were present.       
  • All that glitters is not gold.
  • Some are born poets.
  • Many were rewarded.
  • Somebody has stolen my book.
  • Nobody was there to help me.
  • Something is better than nothing.
  • Did anybody help you?
  • All are happy.
  • Everybody must do his duty.

9. Distributive Pronoun  

     When ‘Each, Either and Neither’ are used as Pronouns they are called Distributive Pronouns.

     (जब Each, Either तथा Neither का प्रयोग Pronoun के  form  में होता है, तो उसे वितरणवाचक सर्वनाम कहते है। इसका प्रयोग दो या दो में से एक को अलग करने के लिए होता है।)

Examples:

  • Each of the girls gets a reward.   
  • Each gets what he deserves.       
  • Either of the two roads goes to the station.
  • Neither of the two boys is diligent.
  • You have two pens, but neither writes well.
  • Each of the students is laborious.
  • Either of the two pencils will do.
  • Neither of the two houses is safe.
  • Either of these computers can be used.
  • Neither of you can be blamed.

10.  Reciprocal Pronoun

     ‘Each other and one another’ are called Reciprocal Pronouns.

Examples:

  • The two boys quarreled with each other.
  • Radha and Krishna love each other.
  • All men fought with one another.
  • We should help one another.
  • Indians should not fight with one another.

AarambhTV Team
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