What Is Present Tense in Hindi?

Simple Present Tense :

      (A)– Affirmative:    Sub. + V1/V5(s/es) + Obj.

      Negative:         Sub. + do/does + not + V1 + Obj.

      Interrogative: Do/Does + Sub. + V1 + Obj. ?

      Int. Negative:  Do/Does + Sub. + not + V1 + Obj.?

      (B) Sub. + is/am/are + Noun Phrase/Adjective

USE 1 :

      Adverbials:

      always, never, seldom generally, hardly, scarcely, rarely, occasionally, often, usually, frequently,  every day/week/year, daily, once /twice a day / a week/year, sometimes etc.

Examples:-

·     I play tennis.

·     She does not play tennis.

·     Does he play tennis?

·     Does he not play tennis?

·     She studies in this college.

USE 2 :

      To express habits/regular actions:

      ‘Simple Present Tense’ is used to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something that often happens.

      (किसी भी आदतन क्रिया, रोज़ाना के कार्य व रीति रिवाज आदि के कार्यों को व्यक्त करने के लिए)

Examples:

·     The train leaves every morning at 8 AM.

·     When does the train usually leave?

·     He rarely speaks Hindi.

·     Generally, the shops open at 9.

·     She always forgets her purse.

·     He goes for a walk daily.

·     I take exercise in the morning regularly.

USE 3 :

      To express general, permanent, scientific and universal truth:

      (सामान्य/स्थायी/वैज्ञानिक सत्य को व्यक्त करने के लिए)

Examples:

·     Cats like milk.

·     Windows are made of glass.

·     Jatin’s brother lives in Mumbai.

·     Water freezes at zero degrees.

·     Oil floats on water.

·     The sun rises in the east.

·     The earth revolves around the sun.

·     The Muslims bury their dead.

·     Light travels faster than sound.

USE 4 :

      ‘Simple Present Tense’ is used to talk about scheduled events in the near future. This is most commonly done when talking about public transportation, but it can be used with other scheduled events as well.

      (निकट भविष्य में घटित होने वाले पूर्व निर्धारित कार्यों को व्यक्त करने के लिए)

Examples:

·     The train leaves tonight at 6 PM.

·     The party starts at 8 o’clock.

·     The Prime Minister arrives in Jodhpur tomorrow.

·     The match starts at 9 o’clock tomorrow.

USE 5 :

       To express proverbial sayings and quotations:

      (कहावतों और उद्धरणों को व्यक्त करने के लिए)

Examples:

·     Actions speak louder than words.

·     All that glitters is not gold.

·     A new broom sweeps clean.

·     Barking dogs seldom bite.

·     A bad workman always blames his tools.

·     Make hay while the sun shines.

USE 6 :

      To express emotions and mental states:

      (भावनाओं  मानसिक स्थिति को व्यक्त करने के लिए)

Examples:

·     I hate beggars.

·     I understand your problem.

USE 7 :

      To express live broadcast of sports or events:

      (खेल और घटनाओं के लाइव प्रसारण को व्यक्त करने के लिए)

Examples:-

·     Rohit  hits the ball nicely but  fielder catches it.

·     The Prime Minister hoists the tricolour.

USE 8 :

       In conditional sentence (Possible condition):

      (सम्भावित शर्त वाले वाक्यों में)

Structure – If + Simple Present + Simple Future

Examples:

·     If you work hard, you will get good marks.

·     If he don’t invite me, I will not go there.

Note :

      If the verb ends in -ss, -sh, -ch, -x or -o, add -es to the base form:

eg. kiss – kisses, finish – finishes, watch – watches, mix – mixes, go – goes 

      If the verb ends with consonant + y changes into ‘I’ and add ‘-es’:

eg. study – studies, copy – copies,  try – tries, carry – carries

USE 9 :

      In clauses of time :

      Main clause + Time clause

      Simple Future + when/after/before + Simple Present

Examples:

·     I will call you when dinner gets ready.

·     I will go abroad after I finish my studies.

·     She will see you before she leaves.

      Present Continuous Tense:

      Affirmative:     Sub. + is/am/are + V1 + ing + Obj.

      Negative:       Sub. + is/am/are + not + V1 + ing + Obj.

      Interrogative: Is/Am/Are + Sub. + V1 + ing + Obj.?

      Int. Negative:  Is/Am/Are + Sub. + not + V1 + ing + Obj.?

Adverbials:

      at present, at this time, at this moment, now, now a days, right now, currently, presently these days etc.

USE 1 :

      To express an action going on at the time of speaking:

      (बात करते समय हो रहे कार्य को व्यक्त करने के लिए)

      Used with normal verbs to express the idea that something is happening now, at this very moment. It can also be used to show that something is not happening now.

Examples:

·     We are learning English now.

·     They are not watching television.

·     Are you sleeping?

·     What are you doing?

·     Right now, I am waiting for you at the bus stop.

·     He is not attending his classes these days.

·     Why aren’t you doing your homework?

·     These days I am reading a novel of an eminent writer. 

·     At present I am teaching English.

·     What are you doing these days.

·     He is teaching in school now-a-days.

USE 2 :

      To express planned action of the future :

      This week, this evening, the weekend, this month, this Sunday/Monday etc.

      (निकट भविष्य में होने वाले निर्धारित कार्यों को व्यक्त करने के लिए)

Examples:

·     My uncle is coming here next week.

·     Is he visiting his parents next weekend?

·     When is the movie releasing?

·     The movie is releasing this month.

USE 3 :

      To express unfavourable habits:

      (नापसंद आदतों को व्यक्त करने के लिए जो बार-बार की जाती है।)

Examples:

·     She is always coming to class late.

·     He is constantly talking.

·     I don’t like them because they are always complaining.

·     He is always getting up late in the morning.

USE 4 :

      Gradually changing or developing situations:

      (धीरे-धीरे लगातार होने वाले परिवर्तनों को दर्शाने के लिए)

Examples:

·     Your English is getting better.

·     It is getting darker.

·     The weather is getting warmer.

·     The Universe is expanding.

(A) Non-Continuous Verbs :

      Non-continuous verbs or state verbs are verbs that we can’t use in continuous form.  Instead of using ‘Present Continuous’ with these verbs, we must use ‘Simple Present’.

      believe, dislike, doubt, imagine, know, like, love, hate, prefer, realize, recognize, remember, suppose, understand, want, wish etc.

      appear, hear, see, seem, smell, sound, taste  etc.

Examples:

·     She is disliking that boy.  (Incorrect)

·     She dislikes that boy.  (Correct)

·     Jack is preferring going out for dinner tonight. (Incorrect)

·     Jack prefers going out for dinner tonight.  (Correct)

·     I’m recognizing you. (Incorrect)

·     I recognize you. (Correct)

·     It is smelling bad. (Incorrect)

·     It smells bad. (correct)

·     She is appearing a nice enough person. (Incorrect)

·     She appears a nice enough person. (Correct)

(B) Other Verbs :

      agree, astonish, deny, disagree, impress, mean, please, promise, satisfy, surprise, be, belong, concern, consist, contain, cost, depend, deserve, fit, include, involve, matter, need, owe, own, possess etc.

Examples:

·     It is involving a lot of work.          (Incorrect)

·     It involves a lot of work.               (Correct)

·     It isn’t mattering.                         (Incorrect)

·     It doesn’t matter.                         (Correct)

·     I am disagreeing with you.          (Incorrect)

·     I disagree with you.                      (Correct)

Note: There are also a number of verbs that don’t take the continuous forms in one meaning but take the continuous forms in other meanings. Here are some of the most important.

(C) Non-Continuous Meanings :

      feel = ‘have an opinion’

·     He feels he should get a second chance.

      see = ‘understand’

·     I see what you mean.

      think = ‘have an opinion’

·     I think we should leave immediately.

      appear = ‘look like’

·     That appears to be strange.

      look = ‘seem’

·     It looks impossible!

      taste = ‘have a taste’

·     That tastes yummy!

(D) Continuous Meanings :

      feel = ‘feel physically’

·     I’m feeling awful this afternoon.

      see = ‘visit’

·     She’s seeing a doctor this morning.

      think = ‘use the brain’

·     He is thinking hard about the problem.

      appear = ‘be on stage / perform’

·     Asha Bhosle is appearing at the concert tonight.

      look = ‘stare at’

·     I’m looking at that strange man.

      taste = ‘use the mouth’

·     The cook is tasting the sauce!

      Present Perfect Tense:

Affirmative:       Sub. + has/have + V3  + Obj.

Negative:            Sub. + has/have + not +V3 + Obj.

Interrogative:    Has/Have + Sub. + V3 + Obj.?

Int. Negative:    Has/Have + Sub. + not + V3 + Obj.?

      Adverbials:

      Yet (अब तक, अभी तक), as yet, Just (तुरंत), Just now, already (पहले से ही, पहले ही), recently(हाल में), lately (हाल में), frequently (प्रायः), so far (अब तक, जहाँ तक), for, since, this morning, ever (हमेशा), never (कभी नहीं), once, twice, thrice, always (हमेशा), occasionally (कभी-कभी) , often (प्रायः), several times (अनेकों बार), upto now (अभी तक), up to the present (वर्तमान समय तक) etc.

USE 1 :

      To express completed actions in the immediate past :

      (ऐसे कार्यों को व्यक्त करने के लिए जो अभी समाप्त हुआ है)

Examples:

·     The train has just arrived.

·     Ram has recently shifted to a new house.

·     Sheela has just finished her work.

·     I have seen that movie twenty times.

·     I have met him once before.

·     He has visited Agra several times.

·     Have you ever seen such a horrified movie?

·     She has not returned my book yet.

·     I have still not received her letter.

USE 2 :

      To express completed actions which time is not given:

      (ऐसे पूर्ण कार्यों को व्यक्त करने के लिए जिसका समय नहीं दिया गया हो)

Examples:

·     People have travelled to the Moon.

·     People have not travelled to Mars.

·     I have read all these books.

·     He has resigned from this post.

·     They have left for Mumbai.

·     I have seen a snake in the garden.

USE 3 :

      To express actions beginning at some time in the past and continuing up to the present moment. (mainly non-continuous verbs):

      (ऐसे कार्यों का वर्णन करने के लिए जो पहले से चल रहा था और अब तक चल रहा है)

Examples:

·     I have known him for a long time.

·     He has been ill since last week.

·     I have lived here for ten years.

·     I have known Mr. Sharma for five years.

Note:

      “Last year” and “in the last year” are very different in meaning. “Last year” means the year before now, and it is considered a specific time which requires ‘Simple Past’. “In the last year” means from 365 days ago until now. It is not considered a specific time, so it requires ‘Present Perfect’.

Examples:

·     I went to Dubai last year.                                  

·     I have been to Dubai in the last year.  

USE 4 :

      To express an action that happened in past but its effect is continuous in present:

(निकट भूतकाल में घटित हुई घटनाओं अथवा कार्यों के लिए जिनका प्रभाव अभी भी जारी है)

Examples:                                          effect

·      I have cut my finger. (now it is bleeding)

·      I have finished my task. (now I am free)

      Present Perfect Continuous Tense:

Affirmative : Sub. + has/have + been + V1 + ing + Obj. + since/for + time.

Negative : Sub. + has/have + not + been + V1 + ing + Obj. + since/for + time.

Interrogative : Has/Have + Sub. + been + V1 + ing + Obj. + since /for + time?

Int. Negative : Has/Have + Sub. + not + been + V1 + ing + Obj. + since /for + time?

Note:

      Since is used for point of time- Yesterday, Monday, 10 AM, January, 1990, Last week, Morning etc. (निश्चित समय के लिए)

      For is used for period of time- 10 years, many years, two weeks etc. (अनिश्चित समय के लिए)

USE 1 :

      To express actions started in the past and still continuing:

      (ऐसे कार्यों को व्यक्त करने के लिए जो भूतकाल में शुरू हुआ था, अभी भी चल रहा है और सम्भवतः भविष्य में भी चलता रहेगा)

Examples:

·     They have been talking in the class for the last two hours.

·     She has been working at that company for three years.

·     What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes?

·     James has been teaching at the university since June.

·     They have been playing since four o’clock.

·     Why has Sheela not been taking her medicine for the last three days?

·     He has been playing football since afternoon.

Note:

      Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Instead of using ‘Present Perfect Continuous’ with these verbs, we must use ‘Present Perfect’.

Examples:

·     Sam has been having his car for two years. (Incorrect)

·     Sam has had his car for two years. (Correct)

·     I have been knowing Shyam for ten years. (Incorrect)

·     I have known Shyam for ten years. (Correct)

AarambhTV Team
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