What is Direct and Indirect Speech in Hindi?

Definition:

          Direct Speech – When the reporter quotes the actual words of the speaker. It is always written in inverted commas. (किसी वक्ता द्वारा कहे हुए शब्दों को बिना परिवर्तन ज्यों का त्यो लिख दें, तो उसे Direct speech कहते है।)

Examples:     

      Indirect Speech – When the reporter does not reproduce the actual words of the speaker but give the meaning of his own words, inverted commas are not used. (किसी वक्ता के कहे हुए शब्दों में कर्त्ता क्रिया में परिवर्तन करके लिखा जाता है, तो उसे Indirect speech कहते है।)

Examples:     

·        Indirect: Ram said that he was very busy then.

Indirect: Rani told me that I was a liar.

·        In the above sentences we changed pronouns, verb and adverb and also added a connective (that). In few sentences reported verb is also changed.

     Rules For Changing Direct into Indirect

1.      Change in Pronouns:

          1st person of Reported Speech is changed as per the subject of Reported Verb.

          2nd person of Reported Speech is changed as per the object of Reported Verb.

          3rd person generally is not changed.

PersonNumberSubjectObjectPossessive
1stSingularImemy
PluralWeusour
2ndSingularYouyouyour
PluralYouyouyour
3rdSingularHehimhis
 Sheherher
 Ititits
 PluralTheythemtheir

Examples:     

·        Direct:   He said to me, “I am going to Kashmir.”

Indirect: He told me that he was going to Kashmir.

·        Direct:   She said to me, “You are my cousin.

Indirect:  She told me that I am her cousin.

2.         Change in Tenses:

Reporting Verbs
say / sayssay / says
say to / says totell/ tells
saidsaid
said totold
will/shall + saywill/shall + say
will/shall + say towill/shall + tell

If the Reporting Verb (R.V.) is in Present or Future Tense, tense of the Reported Speech (R.S.) is not changed.

          If the Reporting Verb is in Past Tense but the Reported Speech expresses some universal truth, habitual action, historical fact, scientific conclusion etc. the tense of Reported Speech is not changed.

Examples:     

·        Direct:   Anil says to Abhishek, “Himanshu is watching T.V.”

Indirect: Anil tells Abhishek that Himanshu is watching T.V.

·        Direct: Khushboo says to me, “You are the only person I have ever seen”.

          Indirect: Khushboo tells me that I am the only person she has ever seen.

·        Direct: Anil says, “I have done the work.”     

Indirect: Anil says that he has done the work.

·        Direct: Susan will say to me, “You are very late.”

Indirect: Susan will tell me that I am very late.

·        Direct: The teacher said to me, “The Earth revolves round the Sun.”

Indirect: The teacher told me that the Earth revolves round the Sun.

·        Direct: My father said to me, “Two and two make four.”

Indirect: My father told me that two and two make four.

·        Direct: She said to her mother, “Water contains H2 and O2.”

Indirect: She told her mother that water contains H2 and O2.

·        Direct: He said to me, “I go for a walk daily.”

Indirect: He told me that he goes for a walk daily.

·        Direct: The saint said, “Man proposes and god disposes.”

Indirect: The saint said that Man proposes and god disposes.

·        Direct: Sita said to Gita, “India gained Independence in 1947.”

Indirect: Sita told Gita that India gained Independence in 1947.

DirectIndirect
Simple Present TenseSimple Past Tense
Present Continuous TensePast Continuous Tense
Present Perfect TensePast Perfect Tense
Present Perfect Continuous TensePast Perfect Continuous Tense
Simple Past TensePast Perfect Tense
Past Continuous TensePast Perfect Continuous Tense
Past Perfect TenseNo change       
Past Perfect Continuous TenseNo change
is /am/ arewas/were
was/werehad been
has / havehad
shall/willwould
cancould
maymight
musthas to/have to/had to
would/ should /could/might/must/used to/ought to/need notNo change

Examples:

·        Direct: John said to Meera, “You are my dear sister.”

Indirect: John told Meera that she was his dear sister.

·        Direct: Kamal said to Reeta, “I have always helped you.”

Indirect: Kamal told Reeta that he had always helped her.

·        Direct: He said to me, “I never eat food.”

Indirect: He told me that he never ate food.

·        Direct: She said to me, “I love you.”

Indirect: She told me that she loved me.

·        Direct: My mother said to Trisha, “Sunil was playing in the garden.”

Indirect: My mother told Trisha that Sunil had been playing in the garden.

·        Direct: Rohan said to Ramesh, “I had bought a scooter for you.”

Indirect: Rohan told Ramesh that he had bought a scooter for him.

·        Direct: Mohan said to Rohan, “Sohan can pass the exam.”

Indirect: Mohan told Rohan that Sohan could pass the exam.

·        Direct: Sita said to Gita, “Rita will be sleeping at home.”

Indirect: Sita told Gita that Rita would be sleeping at home.

·        Direct: My father said to Manish, “You must pass the UPSC exam.”

Indirect: My father told Manish that he must pass the UPSC exam.

3.         Change of words showing nearness into words showing distance:

thisthat
thesethose
herethere
nowthen
thusso
agobefore
todaythat day
tonightthat night
yesterdayprevious day/last day/the day before/earlier day
tomorrowthe next day/the following day/the coming day/the day after
last night / week/month/yearprevious night/ week/ month/ year
next night/ week/month/yearthe following night/ week/ month/ year

Examples:

·        Direct: Harsha said, “I am very happy today.”

Indirect: Harsha said that she was very happy that day.

·        Direct: Sheela said, “I went to Shimla five years ago.”

Indirect: Sheela said that she had gone to Shimla five years before.

·        Direct: He said to Sita, “I must go from here now.”

Indirect: He told Sita that he had to go from there then.

·        Direct: Ram said to Shyam, “They are playing football in the ground now.”

Indirect: Ram told Shyam that they were playing football in the ground then.

·        Direct: Rimi said to me, “I have bought a scooter today.”

Indirect: Rimi told me that she had bought a scooter that day.

·        Direct: She said to Ram, “I have been reading a novel since yesterday.”

Indirect: She told Ram that she had been reading a novel since previous day.

·        Direct: Ritu said to Ranu, “I called you yesterday.”

Indirect: Ritu told Ranu that she had called her last day. 

4.      Interrogative Sentences (प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य):

          यदि Reported Speech में प्रश्न है, तो Indirect Speech बनाते समय Reporting Verb के ‘said’ को ‘asked’ में बदल देते है।

          यदि प्रश्न Helping Verb से प्रारंभ है, तो ‘Connective if/whether’ का use होगा और प्रश्न यदि W/h शब्द से प्रारम्भ हो, तो ‘Connective वही W/h’ शब्द रहेगा।

          प्रश्न को सकारात्मक वाक्य में बदल देते है।

         Yes/No type questionQuestion containing an alternative
If
Whether

Examples:

·        Direct: Tanisha said to me, “Is you father at home?”

          Indirect: Tanisha asked me if my father was at home.

·        Direct: Karan said to me, ”Are you waiting for someone?”

          Indirect: Karan asked me if I was waiting for someone.

·        Direct: Suman said to me, ”Have you done your work?”

          Indirect: Suman asked me if I had done my work.

·        Direct: Jitendra said to the girl, ”Can you speak Hindi fluently?”

          Indirect: Jitendra asked the girl if she could speak Hindi fluently.

·        Direct: I said to him, “Will you help me?”

Indirect: I asked him if he would help me.

·        Direct: He said to them, “Did I tell a lie?”

Indirect: He asked them if he had told a lie.

·        Direct: I said to her, “Are you studying English?”

Indirect: I asked her if she was studying English.

·        Direct: We said to him, “Can you solve this question?”

Indirect: We asked him if he could solve that question.

·        Direct: He said to us, “Do you know my name?”

          Indirect: He asked us if we knew his name.

·        Direct: David said to the stranger, ”Are you a British or an American?”

          Indirect: David asked the stranger whether he was a British or an American.

·        Direct: She said to him, “Will you help me or not?”

Indirect: She asked him whether he would help her or not.

·        Direct: He said to me, “Do you like tea or coffee?”

          Indirect: He asked me whether I liked tea or coffee.

          ‘Wh’ Interrogative Questions :

Examples:-

·        Direct: Nikhil said, ”Why is everybody laughing?”

          Indirect: Nikhil asked why everybody was laughing.

·        Direct: Mahendra said to us, ”Where do you want to go?”

          Indirect: Mahendra asked us where we wanted to go.

·        Direct: Radha said to her students, ”Who will answer my question?”

          Indirect: Radha asked her students who would answer her question.

·        Direct: Raman said to me, “Where do you live?”

Indirect: Raman asked me where I lived.

·        Direct: Ranu said to Hari, “What is your name?”

Indirect: Ranu asked Hari what his name was.

·        Direct: He said to her, “What are you doing?”

Indirect: He asked her what she was doing.

·        Direct: She said to me, “When will you return my book?”

Indirect: She asked me when I would return her book.

·        Direct: He said to us, “How much money do you want?”

          Indirect: He asked us how much money we wanted.

5.      Imperative Sentence (आज्ञासूचक वाक्य):

          आज्ञासूचक वाक्यों से आदेश (order/command), सुझाव (suggestion/advice), निवेदन (request) का बोध होता है।

          यदि Reported Speech में वाक्य Imperative है, तो Indirect बनाते समय Reporting Verb के said को वाक्य के भाव के अनुसार ‘requested/ asked/ advised/ suggested/begged’ में बदल देते है।

          Connective ‘to’ का use होता है और ‘to’ के बाद Verb की First form को वैसा ही रहने देते है।

          यदि Please शब्द है, तो उसे हटा देते है।

Examples:

·        Direct: Yasin said, “Please, give me a pen.”

          Indirect: Yasin requested to give him a pen.

·        Direct: Manohar said to his servant, ”Open all the windows.”

          Indirect: Manohar ordered his servant to open all the windows.

·        Direct: Manju said to the postman, ”Please read this letter for me.”

          Indirect: Manju requested to postman to read that letter for her.

·        Direct: Virendra said to them, ”Be patient and wait for your turn.”

          Indirect: Virendra asked them to be patient and wait for their turn.

·        Direct: Manjeet said to his students, ”Read silently to comprehend the text.”

          Indirect: Manjeet advised his students to read silently to comprehend the text.

·        Direct: She said to them, “Do your work quietly.”

·        Indirect: She ordered them to do their work quietly.

·        Direct: She said to him, “Don’t disturb me.”

Indirect: She ordered him not to disturb her.

or

Indirect: She forbade him to disturb her.

·        Direct: He said to them, “Don’t repeat this mistake.”

Indirect: He ordered them not to repeat that mistake.

or

          Indirect: He forbade them to repeat that mistake.

         Let’s से शुरू होने वाले वाक्य:

          यदि Reported Speech में वाक्य Let’s से प्रारंभ है और Let का अर्थ प्रस्ताव रखना है, तो Indirect बनाते समय Reported Verb के said को proposed में बदल देते है।

          Connective ‘that’ का use होता है तथा Let को हटा देते है।

          Let के बाद के Object को Subject में बदलकर उसे नियमानुसार बदल देते है।

          Subject बदलने के बाद ‘should + V1’ रखकर Indirect बना देते है।

Examples:

·        Direct: Happy said, “Let us go on a walk.”

          Indirect: Happy proposed that they should go on a walk.

·        Direct: Rajesh said to me, ”Let’s go and speak to the manager.”

          Indirect: Rajesh suggested to me that we should go and speak to the manager.

·        Direct: She said to me, “Let us go for a picnic.”

          Indirect: She suggested to me that we should go for a picnic.

·        Direct: He said to me,” Let us study English.”

          Indirect: He suggested to me that we should study English.

·        Direct: He said to them, “Let us watch the T.V.”

          Indirect: He suggested to them that they should watch the T.V.

·        Direct: You said to him, “Let us not disturb others.”

          Indirect: You suggested to him that you should not disturb others.

·        Direct: He said to us, “Let us play football.”

          Indirect: He suggested to us that we should play football.

6.      Optative Sentences (इच्छासूचक वाक्य):

          इन वाक्यों से इच्छा/कामना (wish/desire), आशीर्वाद (blessing), प्रार्थना (prayer), अभिशाप (curse) का बोध होता है और ये sentence ‘May’ से start होते है तथा अन्त में विस्मयादिबोधक चिह्न (!) का use होता है।

          यदि Reported Speech में वाक्य Optative हो, तो Indirect बनाने के लिए Reporting Verb के said को वाक्य के भाव के अनुसार ‘wished, blessed or prayed’ में बदल देते है।

          Connective ‘that’ का use होता है।

          Subject बदलने के बाद ‘might + V1‘ का use करते है।

Examples:

·        Direct: He said to me, “May you get success!”

          Indirect: He wished me that I might get success.

·        Direct: She said to him, “May you live long!”

Indirect: She wished that he might live long.

·        Direct: He said to me, “May you always succeed in life!”

          Indirect: He blessed that I might always succeed in life.

·        Direct: She said to him, “May you never get peace in life!”

Indirect: She cursed him that he might get peace in life.

·        Direct: He said “Good morning Varun!”

Indirect: He wished good morning to Varun.

·        Direct: Aman said “I wish my friends were here!”

          Indirect: Aman wished that his friends had been there.

7.      Exclamatory Sentences (विस्मयादिबोधक वाक्य):

          यदि Reported Speech में Alas!, Hurrah!, Oh!, Ah! etc. हो और विस्मय प्रकट करें, तो उसे विस्मयादिबोधक वाक्य कहते है।

          यदि Reported Speech में वाक्य विस्मयादिबोधक हो, तो Indirect बनाते समय Reporting Verb के said को ‘exclaimed with joy/ sorrow/ surprise/ regret / delight/ applause/ praise’ में बदल देते है।

          Connective ‘that’ का use करते है।

          Alas! Hurrah! Oh! etc. शब्दों को हटा देते है।

(i)      Hurray!, Hurrah! – happiness, joy, delight

(ii)     Oh!, Alas! – sorrow, sadness

(iii)    Bravo!, Well done! – praise, applause

(iv)    Eurekha!, What!, How!, Wow!, Wonder! – surprise

(v)     Sorry! – regret

Examples:

·        Direct: Captain said, “Hurrah! We won the match.”

          Indirect: Captain exclaimed with joy that they had won the match.

·        Direct: Raman said, ”Alas! I am ruined.”

          Indirect: Raman exclaimed with sorrow that he was ruined.

·        Direct: He said to us, “Hurrah! I have pass the exam”.

Indirect: He exclaimed with joy that he had passed the exam.

·        Direct: Ayansh said us, “Fantastic! We have won the prize.

Indirect: Ayansh exclaimed with happiness that we had won the prize.

·        Direct: She said to us, “Alas! The old beggar is dead.”

Indirect: She exclaimed with sorrow that the old beggar was dead.

·        Direct: Nisha said to me, “Alas! I have lost my diamond ring.”

Indirect: Nisha exclaimed with sadness that she had lost her diamond ring.

·        Direct: The teacher said to me, “Bravo! You have done well.”

Indirect: The teacher exclaimed with praise that I had done well.

·        Direct: My uncle said to me, “Well done! You have done a good job.”

Indirect: My uncle exclaimed with applause that I had done a good job.

·        Direct: Arnav said to me, “Sorry! For being late.”

Indirect: Arnav exclaimed with regret that he was late.

Note: यदि विस्मयादिबोधक वाक्य What! या How! से प्रारंभ हो, तो said को ‘exclaimed with surprise’ में बदल देते है। What! या How! शब्द को हटा देते है। subject व verb को नियमानुसार बदलकर Adjective के पहले ‘very/ great’ को रखकर Indirect बनाते है।

Examples:

·        Direct: He said to her, “What a fool you are!”

          Indirect: He exclaimed with surprise that she was a great fool.

·        Direct: Vijay said, ”What a beautiful story!”

          Indirect: Vijay exclaimed with surprise that it was a very beautiful story.

·        Direct: Sumitra said, ”What a great man Mahatma Gandhi was!”

          Indirect: Sumitra exclaimed with surprise that Mahatma Gandhi was a very great man.

·        Direct: Niharika said, ”How easy it is to do!”

          Indirect: Niharika exclaimed with surprise that it was very easy to do it.

·        Direct: She said to me, “What a beautiful house it is!”

Indirect: She exclaimed with surprise that it was a very beautiful house.

·        Direct: He said to her, “How tall you are!”

Indirect: He exclaimed with surprise that she was very tall.

·        Direct: He said to her, “What a teacher you are!”

          Indirect: He exclaimed with surprise that she was a great teacher.

      Important Facts:

          यदि Reported Speech में Time Clause के साथ Past Continuous Tense/Simple Past Tense का use हुआ हो, तो Indirect Speech का Tense नहीं बदलता है।

Example:

·        Direct: Jenny said to me, “While I was studying, you were playing.”

          Indirect: Jenny told me that while she was studying, I was playing.

·        Direct: Gaytri said, “When I met him, he was studying.”

          Indirect: Gaytri said that when she met him, he was studying.

          यदि Reported Speech में Simple Past Tense का use simultaneous actions (समकालिक कार्य) को दर्शाने के लिए होता है, तो Indirect Speech का Tense नहीं बदलता है।

Example:

·        Direct: Anita said, “I prepared the tea and he fried the chips.”

                Indirect: Anita said that she prepared the tea and he fried the chips.

AarambhTV Team
Aarambh TV पर पढ़ें देश और दुनिया की ताजा ख़बरें, गेम्स न्यूज टेक बाइक कार न्यूज वेब सीरीज व्यापार, बॉलीवुड और एजुकेशन न्यूज पब्लिश करता है।

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