What is Articles in Hindi?

Definition of Articles:                       

     Articles are words which define a noun as specific or unspecific.

     ‘A, An and The’ are called Articles.

     Article को हम word fixer भी कह सकते हैं। Modern grammar के अनुसार Articles एक प्रकार के Determiners होते है। ये किसी Noun के पूर्व Antecedent के रूप में use होते हैं।

Kinds of Article:

(A) Indefinite Article :- A, An (one/any) इनका use अनिश्चित Singular Countable Noun के साथ किया जाता है।

Examples:

  • Susan sings a song.
  • I have a car.

(B) Definite Article :- The का use उस noun के पूर्व किया जाता है, जो निश्चित है, विशेष है या जिसकी चर्चा पूर्व में की जा चुकी है।

Examples:

  • This is the house where she lives.
  • The boy in black shirt is my son.

The use of Indefinite Articles ‘A, An’:

(1) ‘A’ is used before a word beginning with consonant sound.

Examples:

  • a boy
  • a child
  • a student
  • a book

(2) ‘A’ is used before a word beginning with a vowel giving the sound of a consonant.

Examples:

  • a one eyed man (वन)
  • a university student (यूनिवर्सिटी)
  • a European (यूरोपीयन)                                    
  • a unique book (यूनिक)

(3) ‘An’ is used before a word beginning with a vowel sound.

Examples:

  • an elephant              
  • an apple
  • an ass                                                            
  • an umbrella

(4) ‘An’ is used before a word beginning with a mute ‘h’.

Examples:

  • an hour                                                         
  • an heir
  • an honourable         
  • an honest man

 (5) ‘An’ is used before a word beginning with a consonant pronounced with the sound of a vowel.

Examples:

  • an L.L.B. student (एल. एल. बी.)                       
  • an M.P. (एम. पी.)
  • an M.L.A. (एम. एल. ए.) 
  • an S.P. (एस. पी.)
  • an X-ray (एक्स – रे)

 (6) यदि किसी भी Proper Noun का use Common Noun के लिए किया जाए, तो उससे पूर्व ‘A/An’ का use किया जाता है।

Examples:

  • Manish is a Sachin Tendulkar.
  • Amit is a Kautilya.
  • A shylock is living in my neighbourhood.
  • He is a Vikramaditya known for his fairness.

(7) Exclamatory (!) वाक्यों में What के बाद में Singular Countable Noun के पूर्व ‘A/An’ का use किया जाता है।

Examples:

  • What a pretty girl!
  • What a cricketer!
  • What a naughty child!
  • How fine a day!
  • What an intelligent girl!

 (8) ‘प्रति माह’ या ‘प्रति वस्तु’ के मत के सन्दर्भ में ‘A/An’ का use किया जाता है।

Examples:

  • Manali earns Rs. one thousand a month.
  • He earns fifty thousand rupees a year.
  • We should brush our teeth twice a day.

(9) ‘A/An’ is used in certain expression of quantity with numbers and expressions of ‘price/rate, speed, ratio’.

     (दर, नाप-तौल, गतिसूचक शब्दों के पहले ‘A/An’ का use किया जाता है।)

Examples:

  • Wheat sells two rupees a kilo.
  • A dozen mangoes.
  • Half a dozen.

(10) जब Uncountable Noun का use Countable Noun की तरह होता है, तब उसके पहले ‘A/An’ का use किया जाता है।

Examples:

  • She is an old love of mine. (प्रेमी/प्रेमिका) Countable
  • This is a lamb. (भेड़) Countable

(11) जब एक से अधिक Noun या Adjective एक ही व्यक्ति या वस्तु का बोध कराएँ, तब सिर्फ एक Noun के पहले ही ‘A/An’ का use होता है, पर यदि अलग-अलग व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं का बोध हो, तो उनमें से प्रत्येक के पहले ‘A/An’ का use किया जाता है।

Examples:

  • a red and blue pencil.
  • a red and a blue pencil.
  • a poet and thinker.
  • a poet and a thinker.

(12) Many/Rather/Quite/Such के बाद यदि Singular Countable Noun हो, तो इससे पूर्व ‘A/An’ का use किया जाता है।

  • Many a woman would welcome such a chance.
  • It is rather a nuisance.
  • It is rather a good step.
  • He is such a nice man that everybody likes him.
  • It is quite an interesting story.

(13) यदि Adjective से पहले so, as, too, how, quite का use हुआ हो, तो उसके बाद ‘A/An’ का use किया जाता है।

  • How serious a crime had been committed was not realised by him.
  • She is as intelligent a student as her brother is.
  • She is so weak a student that she can’t pass.

(14) कुछ विशेष Phrases में ‘A/An’ का use किया जाता है।

Examples:

     In a fix, in a hurry, in a nutshell, make a noise, make a foot, keep a secret, as a rule, at a discount, at a stone’s throw, have a good education, tell a lie, a matter of chance etc.

  • He has a good knowledge of Sanskrit.
  • Never tell a lie.
  • Twelve inches make a foot.
  • You are always in a hurry.

(15) कुछ गिनती बताने वाले शब्द जैसे hundred, thousand, dozen, million, couple, quarter से पूर्व ‘A’ का use किया जाता है।

Example:

  • I have a hundred pens.
  • She has to walk two and a quarter kilometers daily.
  • I have purchased a dozen eggs.
  • He has a thousand rupee note.

(16) Profession से पूर्व ‘A/An’ का use किया जाता है।

Examples:

  • He is a manager/carpenter/cobbler/tailor/cook.
  • She is a nurse/teacher/dentist/doctor.
  • Mr. Sharma is an engineer/architect.

(17) Singular Noun के लिए Nationalities को express करने के लिए ‘A/An’ का use किया जाता है।

Examples:

  • John is an Englishman.
  • Kate is a Catholic.
  • I am an Indian.
  • He is a French.

(18) यदि Noun से पूर्व Adjective हो, तो Adjectives से पूर्व ‘A/An’ का use किया जाता है।

Examples:

  • Asoka was a great king.
  • It was a grand party last night.
  • She is an intelligent girl.

(19) यदि Adjective से पूर्व Adverb का use हुआ हो, तो Adverb से पूर्व ‘A/An’ का use किया जाता है।

Examples:

  • He is an unbelievable generous man.
  • It is a very interesting book.
  • He is a very good person.
  • He is a much hated character.

(20) ‘A/An’ is used before the verbs that are used as nouns.

Examples:

  • For a ride
  • Have a drink
  • For a swim
  • For a visit
  • Have a bath etc.

(21) ‘A/An’ is used before the Determiners/ Adjectives ‘Little’ and ‘Few’ to give the sense of ‘some’.

     A little- some (Quantity)

     A few- some (Number)

Examples:

  • Please give me a little sugar. (some)
  • I met a few students in the university. (some)

The use of Definite Article ‘The’

     The का use उस Noun से पूर्व किया जाता है, जो निश्चित है, विशेष है या जिसकी चर्चा पूर्व में की जा चुकी है।

(22) When we talk of a particular person or a thing as already mentioned, known or under discussion.

     (जब किसी पूर्व निर्धारित वस्तु के बारे में कहा जाए, तो The का use किया जाता है।)

Examples:

  • Rohan found a purse. The purse contained a note. The note was made of silver.
  • Divya brought a silk saree. The saree is a very unique.
  • The book is not available in the market.
  • Let us study the lesson carefully.

     (Sentence में purse से पूर्व सर्वप्रथम ‘a’ का use किया गया है, बाद में ‘the’ का use किया गया है, क्योंकि यह purse पूर्व निर्धारित, निश्चित हो गया है। इसी तरह note से पहले ‘a’ का use किया गया है, बाद में ‘the’ का, क्योंकि अब note पूर्व निर्धारित, निश्चित हो चुका है। इसी तरह Sentence में पहले saree से पूर्व ‘a’ तथा बाद में the का use किया गया है।)

(23) ‘The’ is used as an adverb with double comparatives.

Examples:

  • The more she gets, the more she demands.
  • The more you work, the more you get.
  • The sooner, the better.

 (24) ‘The’ is used before comparative degree in case of a choice.

Examples:

  • Karan is the stronger of the two boys.
  • This is the better of the two poems.
  • She is the weaker of the two sisters.

 (25) ‘The’ is used before Proper Nouns (unique objects) when they refer to the names of historical  buildings, mountain ranges, planets, canals, rivers, oceans, gulfs, groups of islands, holy books, ordinals, descriptive names of countries, states, newspapers, magazines, deserts, names of trains, hotels, shops, political parties etc.

     (धार्मिक समुदायों के नाम, साम्राज्यों के नाम, इतिहास की घटनाओं, वंशजों के नाम, राजनैतिक दलों के नाम, ट्रेन, जहाज, अखबार के नाम, महत्वपूर्ण भवनों के नाम, नदियों के नाम, नहरों के नाम, समुद्र के नाम आदि के पूर्व ‘The’ का use किया जाता है।)

Examples:

  • The Ganges, The Godawari, The Sutlej
  • The Pacific, The Red Sea, The Indian Ocean
  • The Hindus, The Muslims, the Sikhs
  • The Intercity express, The Rajdhani Express
  • The BJP, The Congress, The Communist Party
  • The Bay of Bengal, The gulf of Mexico
  • The Taj Mahal, The Red Fort
  • The French Revolution, The Quit India Movement
  • The Hindustan Times, The Indian Express
  • The Moon, The Sun, The Mars
  • The Ramayana, The Quran, The Bible
  • The Lakshadweep islands, The Philippines,
  • The Andes, The Alps
  • The Himalayas,  The Raymonds

Note: But Valmiki’s Ramayana, Banbhatt’s Kadambiri जैसे स्थिति में, इनके पूर्व ‘The’ का use नहीं होता है।

Note: ‘The’ is not used before Mount Abu and Mount Everest because they are not mountain ranges but peaks.

(26) व्यक्ति के पद के पूर्व ‘The’ का use किया जाता है।

Examples:

  • The Chairman will decide the matter.
  • The meeting was presided over by the Executive Director.
  • This decision is taken by the Prime Minister.

(27) Group के लिए Nationality (राष्ट्रीयता) express करने वाले शब्दों से पूर्व ‘The’ का use किया जाता है।

  • The English defeated the French.
  • The Indian Cricket team has won the match.
  • The Chinese are hard working.

(28) Ordinals से पूर्व ‘The’ का use किया जाता है। First, second, third….. ordinals तथा one, two, three…. cardinals कहलाते है।

Examples:

  • The tenth chapter of this book is very difficult.
  • Priyansh is the first to arrive in the meeting.

(29) Superlative Degree Adjective से पूर्व ‘The’ का use किया जाता है।

  • Shakespeare was the greatest playwright.
  • Cricket is the most popular game.
  • Brown rice is the healthiest food in the world.

(30) Musical instruments and Invention (आविष्कार) के नाम के पूर्व, ‘The’ का use किया जाता है।

Examples:

  • He can play the flute.
  • She is fond of playing the harmonium.
  • The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell.
  • The wireless was invented by Guglielmo Marconi.

(31) Cinema and Theatre से पूर्व ‘The’ का use किया जाता है।

Examples:

  • Sanjay went to the cinema yesterday.
  • Riya is going to the theatre with Mahesh.

(32) ‘The’ का use Country के नाम से पूर्व नहीं होता है लेकिन यदि Country के नाम के साथ Republic, Kingdom, States जुड़े हुए हों, तो ‘The’ का use इनसे पूर्व किया जाता है।

     (The Republic of Ireland, The United States, The United Kingdom)

Examples:

  • Rakesh visited India and the United States.
  • They went to Canada and the United Kingdom.

(33) East, West, North, South के साथ ‘The’ का use होता है लेकिन यदि इनके साथ किसी Place का नाम जोड़ा गया हो, तो The का use नहीं होगा। इसी तरह Northern, Southern, Eastern, Western से पूर्व ‘The’ का use नहीं होता है।

Examples:

  • The sun rises in the east.                               
  • Govardhan is going to North America.
  • Rajasthan is in Western India.
  • Sweden is in Northern Europe.

(34) ‘The’ is used before Proper Noun for the sake of comparison.

Examples:

  • The coal of Jharia is of good quality.
  • The prosperity of a country depends upon its citizens.
  • The beauty of Kashmir is praise worthy.

 (35)’The’ is used before sports, cups and trophies.

Examples:

  • India won the Singer Cup last year.
  • A number of teams are taking part in the World Cup.

(36) ‘The’ is used before physical positions.

Examples:

  • The top of the mountain.
  • The back of the house.
  • The center of the market.
  • The front of the house.

(37) ‘The’ is used before caste and communities.

Examples:

  • The Rajputs are brave people.
  • The Marathas are hard working.                 

(38) ‘The’ is used before the organs of government.

Examples:

  • The Judiciary
  • The Legislature

(39) ‘The’ is used before the dynasties, empires, wars, revolutions, centuries.

Examples:

  • The Gupta dynasty.
  • The British empire.
  • The Red revolution.
  • The Middle ages.
  • The Civil war.
  • The Vedic ages.
  • The Sixth century.

(40) Parts of the body (शरीर के अंगों) के पूर्व ‘The’ का use किया जाता है।

Examples:

  • Ankush was wounded in the arm.
  • Govind hit Johny on the head.

No Article/Zero Article

(41) यदि Superlative Degree ‘most’ का use ‘very’ के अर्थ में हो, तो उससे पहले The का use नहीं होता है।

Examples:

  • Nehal is a most beautiful girl.                     
  • This is a most useful novel.

(42) Meals के नाम (lunch, dinner, supper, breakfast)  के पूर्व Articles का use सामान्य स्थिति में नहीं किया जाता है।

Examples:

  • Khushboo couldn’t have breakfast this morning.
  • Trisha was invited to dinner.
  • I had lunch at 1 P.M.

     But यदि Meals के साथ कोई Adjective लगा हो या Meals Particular हो, तो Articles का use किया जाता है।

Examples:

  • Vaishali arranged a nice dinner.
  • The dinner hosted by the queen was superb.

(43) ‘No article’ is used before languages & colours.

Examples:

  • I can speak Hindi, but I can’t speak English.
  • Ronaldo likes blue and white colour.
  • Chinese is a difficult language.
  • He knows Russian very  well.

     लेकिन यदि Colour का नाम एक Adjective की तरह किसी Countable Noun के साथ use हुआ है, तो Articles का use किया जाता है।

Examples:

  • Babita has a blue saree.                               
  • I have a red pen.

(44) Diseases (बीमारियाँ) के नाम से पूर्व
generally कोई Article नहीं लगता है।

Examples:

  • Romeo is suffering from fever.
  • He died of Covid-19.
  • Cancer is a dreaded disease.
  • AIDS is spreading like wild fire.

Exception 

  • the Measles
  • the Mumps
  • the Rickets
  • the Plague
  • the Flu

(45) Subjects (विषयों) के नाम के पूर्व generally Articles का use नहीं किया जाता है।

Examples:

  • I am student of Political Science.
  • Meenakshi is learning French.
  • I secured 88% marks in English.
  • Ishika is good at Physics.

(46) Kind of/Type of/Sort of/ Title of / Variety of / Rank of /Post of  के बाद Articles का use नहीं किया जाता है।

Examples:

  • What kind of bird it was!
  • What kind of girl she is!

(47) जब किसी Abstract Noun द्वारा feelings या emotions को कथन की तरह express किया जाए, तो Articles का use नहीं किया जाता है।

Examples:

  • Honesty is the best policy.
  • Truth is a noble quality.
  • Love is a natural feeling.
  • Life is a journey of experiences.

 (48) जब Common Noun का use widest sense (विस्तृत अर्थ) में किया जाता है, तो उससे पूर्व Articles का use नहीं होता है।

Examples:

  • Birds fly.
  • Cows eat grass.
  • Lions are noble animal.
  • Kangaroos are found in Australia.              

(49) Games & Sports के नाम के पूर्व Articles का use नहीं किया जाता है।

Examples:                       

  • Divya plays golf.
  • Cricket is a popular sport of India.

(50) Seasons के नाम के पूर्व Articles का use नहीं किया जाता है।

Examples:

  • Summer is a hot season.
  • In spring we like to clean the house.
  • David is planning to visit his parents in winter.

(51) ‘No article’ is used before ‘Material Nouns’.

Examples:

  • Gold is a precious metal.
  • Silver is a useful metal.
  • It was not build of bricks.

Note: यदि किसी Particular Material की बात हो रही हो, तो उससे पूर्व ‘The’ का use किया जाता है।

Examples:

  • The tea of Assam is very famous.
  • The gold of the UAE is cheaper than the gold of India.

(52) ‘No article’ is used before names of relations like ‘uncle, mother, father etc.’ before  possessive adjectives.

Examples:

  •   x  My father will go to Delhi tomorrow.
  •   x  Her aunt is expected any moment.

Some Important Examples:-

S. NoIncorrect sent.Correct sent.
1Never tell lie.Never tell a lie.
2Always speak truth.Always speak the truth.
3It is quarter past five now.It is a quarter five now.
4You are in wrong.You are in the wrong.
5I am in hurryI am in a hurry.
6I read Indian Express daily.I read the Indian Express daily.
7The English is spoken by English.English is spoken by the English.
8Kavita is best girl in class.Kavita is the best girl in the class.
9The man is mortal.Man is mortal.
10He is honest boy.He is an honest boy.
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