What is Active & Passive Voice in Hindi?

What is voice?

         यह verb का एक रूप है जिसमें यह पता लगता है कि Subject ने कोई काम किया है या कोई काम Subject द्वारा किया गया है।

         There are two types of voice:

         1. Active voice

         2. Passive voice

1.     Active Voice (कर्तृवाच्य)

         When the subject performs the action of the verb, the sentence is said to be in the active voice.

         Verb का वह रूप जिसमें कर्ता, कर्म पर कोई क्रिया करता है, Active Voice कहलाता है।

         इसमें Subject (कर्ता) को विशेष महत्व दिया जाता है और Verb को उसी के अनुसार रखा जाता है।

         Subject + Verb + Object

Examples:                       

·        They will do the work.

·        Mohan sang a song.

2.      Passive Voice (कर्मवाच्य)

         When the subjects the action of the verb, the sentence is said to be in the passive voice.

         Verb का वह रूप जिसमें कर्ता (Subject) doer of the Action न होकर ‘by agent’ हो जाता है।

         इस प्रकार के वाक्यों में दो बातों पर जोर दिया जाता है

1. कार्य (Action) पर

2. कर्म (Object): जिस पर कार्य का प्रभाव पड़ता है या जिससे कार्य का सम्बन्ध जुड़ता है। इन्हें निम्नलिखित उदाहरणों द्वारा समझा जा सकता है

Examples:-

·        Active: Mohan sang a song.

Passive: A song was sung by Mohan.

·        Active: Hari writes a letter.

Passive: A letter is written by Hari. 

         विभिन्न sentences को Passive Voice में बदलने के Rules भी अलगअलग होते है। इन नियमों की जानकारी प्राप्त करने से पहले Passive Voice की कुछ प्रमुख बातों को जानना जरूरी है

–          Transformation of Active Sentences into Passive Voice

(A)    Active Voice के sentence के object को Passive Voice के sentence में subject के स्थान पर रखा जाता है तथा Active Voice के subject को Passive Voice के Sentence में ‘by’ के साथ लिखा जाता है। (इसे Passive Voice के Sentence में agent कहा जाता है – by + agent)

(B)    यदि Active Voice के Subject व Object दोनो ही Pronouns है तो वे आपस में इस प्रकार बदलते है

PersonPronoun(Subjective Form)Pronoun (Objective Form)
IPersonIme
Weus
IIPersonYouyou
III  PersonHehim
Sheher
Itit
Theythem

(C)       Passive Voice बनाते समय मुख्य क्रिया (Main Verb) की Past Participle Form (Third Form) का use किया जाता है।

(D)       Main Verb के Past Participle Form से पूर्व Active Voice के Tense व Object के Number तथा Person के अनुसार ‘be’ (is, are, am, was, were, be, being, been etc.) का use आवश्यक रूप से किया जाता है।

Note1: केवल Transitive Verbs का ही Passive Voice बनाया जा सकता हैक्योंकि इनके Objects दिए रहते है। Intransitive Verbs के Objects नही होने के कारण इन्हें Passive Voice में नहीं बदला जा सकता।

Note2: ‘Agent’ is omitted when it is understood, like ‘No one, Nobody, Nothing, Someone, Somebody, Something, Everyone, Everybody, Everything, Police, We, They, One, People’ etc.

Tenses एवं उनकी Passive Forms

TenseActive FormPassive Form
Simple  Present TenseV1/V5(s/es)is/am/are + V3
Present Continuous Tenseis/am/are + V+ ingis/am/are + being + V3
Present Perfect Tensehas/have + V3has/have + been + V3
Simple Past TenseV2was/were + V3
Past Continuous Tensewas/were + V1 + ingwas/were + being + V3
Past Perfect TenseHad + V3had + been + V3
Simple Future Tensewill/shall + V1will/shall + be + V3
Future Perfect Tensewill/shall + have + V3will/shall + have + been + V3
ModalModal + V1Modal + be + V3
ModalsModal + have + V3Modal + have + been + V3

Examples:

·        Active: They sell the caps.

          Passive: The caps are sold by them.

·        Active: We don’t like you.

          Passive: You are not liked by us.

·        Active: She is flying a kite.

Passive: A kite is being flown by her.

·        Active: He is beating them.

Passive: They are being beaten by him.

·        Active: She has bought a new scooter.

Passive: A new scooter has been bought by her.

·        Active: We have not plucked the flower.

Passive: The flower has not been plucked by us.

·        Active: Rahul threw the ball.

Passive: The ball was thrown by Rahul.

·        Active: We did not grow the rice.

Passive: The rice was not grown by us.

·        Active: Tom was building the flats in the society.

Passive: The flats were being built by Tom in the society.

·        Active: She had not done Sita’s homework.

Passive: Sita’s homework had not been done by her.

·        Active: He will not speak a word to you.

Passive: Not a word will be spoken to you by him.

·        Active: They will repair the car.

Passive: The car will be repaired by them.

·        Active: They will have sold all the bananas.

Passive: All the bananas will have been sold by them.

·        Active: Rita will have posted the letter tomorrow.

Passive: The letter will have been posted by Rita tomorrow.

Rule – 1 :

         Simple Present Tense में Passive Voice बनाते समय ‘is/am/are’ के बाद Main Verb की Third Form रखते है।

Examples:

·       Active: We worship various gods in India.

         Passive: Various gods are worshipped in India.

·       Active:  People eat wheat in most parts of our country.

         Passive: Wheat is eaten in most parts of our country.

Rule – 2 :

         Simple Past Tense में ‘was/were’ के बाद Main Verb की Third Form रखते है।

Examples:     

·       Active:  They built bridges over the Rajasthan Canal.

         Passive: Bridges were built over the Rajasthan Canal.

·       Active: The police caught the thief.

         Passive: The thief was caught.

Rule – 3 :

         Future Simple Tense में ‘will/shall’ के बाद be + Main Verb की Third Form रखते है।

Examples:

·       Active:  They will repair the car.

         Passive: The car will be repaired by them.

·       Active: We will not change quantum at all.

         Passive: Quantum will not be changed at all.

Rule – 4 :

         Present Continuous Tense में ‘is/are/am’ के बाद being + Main Verb की Third Form रखते है।

Examples:

·        Active:  Shopkeepers are selling the gram.

          Passive: The gram is being sold by shopkeepers.

·        Active: She is eating a mango.

          Passive: A mango is being eaten by her.

Rule – 5 :

         Past Continuous Tense में ‘was/were’ के बाद being + Main Verb की Third Form रखते है।

Examples:

·       Active:  Trisha was cooking delicious food.

         Passive: Delicious food was being cooked by Trisha.

·       Active: They were reading a book.

         Passive: A book was being read by them.

Rule – 6 :

         Present Perfect Tense में ‘has/have’ के बाद been + Main Verb की Third Form रखते है।

Examples:

·       Active:  They have built bridges over the Rajasthan Canal.

         Passive: Bridges have been built over the Rajasthan Canal.

·       Active: People have collected the goods.

         Passive: The goods have been collected.

Rule – 7 :

         Past Perfect Tense में ‘had’ के बाद been + Main Verb की Third Form रखते है।

Examples:

·       Active:  I had answered all your questions.

         Passive: All your questions had been answered by me.

·       Active: They had received the parcel.

         Passive: The parcel had been received.

Rule – 8 :

         Future Perfect Tense में ‘will have/shall have’ के बाद been + Main Verb की Third Form रखते है।

Examples:

·       Active:  They will have completed this work by January 2007.

         Passive: This work will have been completed by January 2007.

·       Active: The boy will have cleaned the windows.

         Passive: The windows will have been cleaned by the boy.

Note: निम्नलिखित Tenses के sentences का Passive Voice में परिवर्तन नहीं होता है

1.  Present Perfect Continuous Tense

2. Past Perfect Continuous Tense

3. Future Continuous Tense

4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Rule – 9 :

         कुछ Intransitive Verbs (अकर्मक क्रियाएँ) किसी Preposition के साथ मिलकर Transitive Verbs (सकर्मक क्रियाएँ) का कार्य करती है। ऐसी स्थिति में Passive Voice में Preposition अपने Verb के साथ रहती है।

Examples:

·       Active:  Ram laughed at me.

         Passive: I was laughed at by Ram.

·        Active:  My sister looks after your brother.

         Passive: Your brother is looked after by my sister.

Rule – 10 :

         Active Voice के कुछ sentences में can/ may/ could/ might/ should/ would/ must आदि के बाद Infinitive Verb का use होता है। ऐसे sentences को Passive Voice में बदलते समय can/may/could/ might/ should/ would आदि के बाद be रखा जाता हैतत्पश्चात् Verb का Past Participle रूप लिखा जाता है।

Examples:

·       Active: Sarita will write a letter.

         Passive: A letter will be written by Sarita.

·       Active:  Your team can win the match.

         Passive: The Match can be won by your team.

·       Active:  Our friends may help us.

         Passive: We may be helped by our friends.

·       Active:  Students must respect their teachers.

         Passive: Teachers must be respected by their students.

Rule – 11 :

         Active Voice के जिन वाक्यों में Modal Auxiliary के बाद have + Past Participle दिया होतो उनको Passive Voice में बदलते समय have के बाद been का use किया जाता है।

Examples:

·       Active:  Bhawesh will have cancelled this trip.

         Passive: This trip will have been cancelled by Bhawesh.

·       Active:  Mr. Sharma could have sent a reply.

         Passive: A reply could have been sent by Mr. Sharma.

·       Active:  Ram might have written the book .

         Passive: The book might have been written by Ram.

·       Active:  These businessmen must have paid advance tax.

         Passive: Advance tax must have been paid by these businessmen.

·       Active:  Trisha ought to have consulted a doctor.

         Passive: A doctor ought to have been consulted by Trisha.

Rule – 12 :

         कुछ sentences में Active Voice में is, am, are, was, were, has, have, had, shall have, will have के पश्चात् to + First Form of Verb का use होता है। Passive Voice में इन क्रियाओं के पश्चात् to + be + Third Form of Verb का use करते है।

Pattern:

         Object + is/am/are/was/were + to be + V3 + by agent

Examples:

·       Active: The guide is to help him.

         Passive: He is to be helped by the guide.

·       Active:  The teacher was to instruct him.

         Passive: He was to be instructed by the teacher.

·       Active:  They are to assist the doctor.

         Passive: The doctor is to be assisted by them.

·       Active:  I have to finish this work in an hour.

         Passive: This work has to be finished in an hour.

·       Active: Somebody has to feed her.

         Passive: She has to be fed.

·       Active:  Mr. Sharma had to lead her.

         Passive: She had to be led by Mr. Sharma.

·       Active:  I have to make some arrangements.

         Passive: Some arrangements have to be made by me.

Rule – 13 :

         There से शुरू होने वाले Active Voice के कुछ sentences में Subject (Noun) के बाद Infinitive (to + Transitive Verb) का use होता है। इनका Passive Voice बनाते समय निम्नलिखित Pattern को use में लिया जाता है

Pattern:

         There + H.V. + Subject (Noun) + to be + V3

Examples:

·       Active: There is no form to reject.

         Passive: There is no form to be rejected.

·       Active: There is no plan to make against him.

         Passive: There is no plan to be made against him.

·       Active:  There are some questions to answer.

         Passive: There are some questions to be answered.

Rule – 14 :

         Causative Sentences में Object के बाद Bare Infinitive (without ‘to’) दिया होता हैतो उनका Passive Voice निम्नलिखित Pattern का use करके बनाया जाता है

Pattern:

         Object + to be + Past Participle + to infinitive + by + agent.

Examples:

·       Active: I made her wash my clothes.

         Passive: She was made to wash my clothes by me.

·       Active: We saw him cross the road.

         Passive: He was seen to cross the road by us.

·       Active:  They got the boy polish their shoes.

         Passive: The boy was got to polish their shoes.

Rule – 15 :

         Active voice – It is time + to + V1 + Obj.

         Passive voice – It is time + for + Obj. + to + be + V3

Examples:

·       Active:  It is time to ring the bell.

         Passive: It is time for the bell to be rung.

·       Active:  It is time to shut the gates.

         Passive: It is time for the gates to be shut.

–        Verbs Having Double Object

Rule – 16 :

         कुछ क्रियाओं (Verbs) के दो Objects होते हैं-

(A) Direct या निर्जीव Object 

(B) Indirect या सजीव Object

         Passive Voice में इनमें से किसी एक को Subject बनाया जा सकता हैपरन्तु सुविधा की दृष्टि से अधिकत्तर Indirect Object को Subject बनाया जाता है।

Patterns:

         (A) IO + H.V. + V3 + DO.

         (B) DO + H.V. + V3 + to + IO.

Examples:

·       Active:  Somebody gave me a pen.

         Passive: (i) I was given a pen.

                        (ii) A pen was given to me.

·       Active:  Everybody offered him bouquet.

         Passive: (i) He was offered bouquet.

                       (ii) Bouquet was offered to him.

Note: जब Active Voice में Object इस प्रकार हो कि बाद वाला Object पहले वाले Object का Complement होतो पहले वाले Object को Passive Voice में Subject बना देते है।

Examples:

·       Active: We made him captain.

         Passive: He was made captain by us.

·       Active:  The boys called him hero.

         Passive: He was called hero by the boys.

·       Active:  The garment business has made him rich.

         Passive: He has been made rich through the garment business.

·       Active:  It’s high time we asked him to leave the room.

         Passive: It’s high time he was asked to leave the room.

–       Complex Sentences को Passive Voice में बदलने के दो नियम हैं-

Rule – 17 :

(A)   केवल Main Clause को ही Passive Voice में बदलते है तथा इसे It से शुरू करते है और that से शुरू होने वाले Clause को ज्यों का त्यों रखते है।

Pattern:

         It + ‘be’ (is/are/am/was/were) + Past Participle + that + …….. (शेष भाग ज्यों का त्यों)

(B)    That से शुरू होने वाले Clause के Subject को ही Passive Voice का Subject बनाते है। शेष परिवर्तन to be + Past Participle के रूप में रखते है।

Pattern:

         Sub. + ‘be’ (is/are/am/was/were) + past participle + to + be + …….. (शेष भाग ज्यों का त्यों)

Examples:

·       Active:  People believe that smoking is injurious to health.

         Passive:            

         (i) It is believed that smoking is injurious to health.

(ii) Smoking is believed to be injurious to health.

·       Active:  They say that apples are good for health.

         Passive:            

(i) It is said that apples are good for health.

(ii) Apples are said to be good for health.

·       Active:  They said that Akbar was a great king.

         Passive:            

         (i) It was said that Akbar was a great king.

         (ii) Akbar was said to be a great king.

·       Active:  They will suggest that we should revise the course.

         Passive: 

(i) It will be suggested that the course should be revised.

         (ii) The course will be suggested to be revised.

Rule – 18 :

         Modern English में अब Passive Voice बनाते समय उन तमाम कर्ताओं (Subjects) को छोड़ देते है जो अज्ञात (Unknown) होते है। जैसे – Someone, Somebody, Everyone, Everybody, No One, Nobody, One, Children, People, Police, We, They etc.

Examples:

·       Active:  We saw the tiger in the field.

         Passive: The tiger was seen in the field.

·       Active: You demonstrated the lesson very well.

         Passive: The lesson was demonstrated very well.

·       Active: People speak English all over the world.

         Passive: English is spoken all over the world.

·       Active: Somebody stole my car yesterday.

         Passive: My car was stolen yesterday.

Rule – 19 :

         ऐसे Negative Sentences जिनमें do/ does/ did + not + V1 दिया होतो उनका Passive Voice बनाते समय do/ does + not + V1 को is/ am/ are + not + V3 में बदल देते है और did + not + V1 को was/ were + not + V3 में बदल देते है।

          Active Voice                  Passive Voice

do/does + not + V1       is/are/am + not + V3

did + not + V1                was/were + not + V3

Examples:

·       Active: We do not repair mobiles here.

         Passive: Mobiles are not repaired here.

·       Active: The teacher did not write some words legibly on the black-board.

         Passive: Some words were not written legibly on the black-board.

Rule – 20 :

         कुछ Verbs के पश्चात् Passive Voice में by preposition के स्थान पर अन्य Prepositions (उन क्रियाओं हेतु निश्चित) का use होता है।

(A)    Surprised, Astonished, Disappointed, Displeased तथा Alarmed के पश्चात Passive Voice में ‘at’ का use होता है।

Examples:

·       Active: Your intelligence surprised me.

         Passive: I was surprised at your intelligence.

·       Active:  His success astonished us.

         Passive: We were astonished at his success.

(B)    Known तथा Obliged के पश्चात् Passive Voice में ‘to’ का use होता है।

Example:

·       Active:  Everybody knows Gandhiji.

         Passive: Gandhiji is known to everybody.

(C)    Pleased, Satisfied आदि के पश्चात् Passive Voice में ‘with’ का use होता है।

Examples:

·       Active: My behaviour pleased him.

         Passive: He was pleased with my behaviour.

·       Active: Your work satisfies the officers.

         Passive: The officers are satisfied with your work.

(D)    Interested के पश्चात् Passive Voice में ‘in’ का use होता है।

Example:

·       Active:  This book interests me.

         Passive: I am interested in this book.

–       Transformation of Interrogative Sentences into Passive Voice

         Interrogative Sentences का Passive Voice सदैव Interrogative में ही बनता है। इनको Passive Voice में बदलते समय Active Voice के कर्ता (Subject) को अधिकतर by लगाकर V3 के बाद Object के रूप में रखते है, क्योंकि बिना इनके वाक्य की पूर्णता नहीं बन पाती।

Rule – 21 :

         अगर वाक्य के प्रारंभ में प्रश्नवाचक सर्वनाम (Interrogative Pronoun) नहीं होकेवल Auxiliary Verb (is, are, was, were, do, does, did etc.) होतो Passive Voice में अन्य बातें पहले के नियमों के अनुसार ही लागू होती है।

Pattern:

          to be + Object + V3 + by agent?

Examples:

·       Active:  Did he kill a lion?

         Passive: Was a lion killed by him?

·       Active:  Do you help your friends?

         Passive: Are your friends helped?

·       Active: Do you study English?

         Passive: Is English studied by you?

Rule – 22 :

(A)    Active Voice में वाक्य के प्रारंभ में प्रश्नवाचक शब्द (Why, When, Where, How, Which, What etc.) होतो Passive Voice में इस प्रश्नवाचक शब्द को वाक्य के प्रारंभ में ज्यों का त्यों रख दिया जाता हैशेष बातें पूर्ववर्ती नियमों के अनुसार ही लागू होती हैं।

Pattern:

         Wh. word + to be + Object + V+ by agent?

Examples:

·       Active:  When does he take his tea?

         Passive: When is his tea taken?

·       Active:  Why did you write a letter?

         Passive: Why was a letter written by you?

·       Active:  Where should we keep this money?

         Passive: Where should this money be kept?

·       Active:  When will they open the gate?

         Passive: When will the gate be opened?

(B)    Passive Voice बनाते समय प्रश्नवाचक सर्वनाम Who के स्थान पर या तो By whom रखते है या प्रारंभ में Who रखकर by वाक्य के बिल्कुल अंत में ले जाते है, Whom के स्थान पर Who का use करते है।

Examples:

·       Active:  Who called me?

         Passive: (i) By whom was I called?

                        (ii)Who was I called by?

·       Active:  Who stole my pen?

         Passive: (i)By whom was my pen stolen?

                        (ii) Who was my pen stolen by?

·       Active:  Who teaches you English?

         Passive: (i) By whom are you taught English?

                        (ii) By whom is English taught to you?

·       Active:  Who wrote that book?

         Passive: (i) By whom was that book written?

                        (ii) Who was that book written by?

–       Transformation of Imperative Sentences into Passive Voice

Rule – 23 :

         जिन sentences में Order, Command, Request, Advice, Suggestion and Proposal etc. का भाव प्रकट होता हैउन्हें Passive Voice में बदलने के लिए वाक्य में अपनी ओर से Let का use करते है तथा उसे वाक्य के प्रारंभ में रखते है। उसके बाद Object रखा जाता है। इसके पश्चात् be + V3  का use करते है।

         Identification –

(A) V1                              (B) Do/Don’t

(C) Please/Kindly           (D) Let us /Let’s

(A)    V1 –         (i)You are ordered to ……….

                        (ii) Let + Obj. + be + V3 ………

                        (iii) should + be + V3 ……….

Examples:

·       Active: Post this letter.

         Passive: (i) You are ordered to post this letter.

(ii) Let this letter be posted.

(iii) This letter should be posted.

·       Active: Open all the doors.

         Passive: (i) You are ordered to opened all the

doors.

(ii) Let all the doors be opened.

(iii) All the doors should be opened.

·       Active: Answer all these questions.

         Passive: (i) You are asked to answer all these

questions.

   (ii) Let all these questions be

answered.

(iii) All these questions should be

(B)    Do/Don’t (i) You are forbidden to…….

                           (ii) Let + Obj. + be + V3 ………

Examples:

·       Active: Do it again.

         Passive: Let it be done again.

·       Active: Do it quickly.

         Passive: Let it be done quickly.

·       Active: Do not kill the bird.

         Passive:

(i) You are forbidden to kill the bird.

(ii) Let the bird not be killed.

·       Active: Do not abuse Ram.

         Passive:

         (i) You are forbidden to abuse Ram.

         (ii) Let Ram not be abused.

·       Active: Don’t tease the old man.

         Passive:

         (i) You are forbidden to tease the old man.

         (ii) Let the old man not be teased.

(C)    Please/Kindly (i) You are requested to …..

                                   (ii) Obj. + should be + V3

Examples:

·       Active: Please help the poor man.

Passive:

(i) You are requested to help the poor man.

(ii) The poor man should be helped.

·       Active: Please take the medicines.

Passive:

(i) You are requested to take the medicines.

(ii)The medicines should be taken.

·       Active: Please clean the table.

Passive:

(i) You are requested to clean the table.

         (ii) The table should be cleaned.

·       Active: Please take your seat.

Passive: You are requested to take your seat.

·       Active: Kindly wake me up in the morning.

Passive: You are requested to wake me up in the morning.

·       Active: Avoid bad company.

·       Passive: You are advised to avoid bad company.

(D)    Let us /Let’s (i) You are suggested to ….

                                (ii) Let + Obj. + be + V3

Examples:

·       Active: Let us help the lady.

Passive:

(i) You are suggested to help the lady.

(ii) Let the lady be helped.

·        Active: Let us not disturb others.

Passive:

(i) You are suggested not to disturb others.

(ii) Let others not be disturbed.

AarambhTV Team
Aarambh TV पर पढ़ें देश और दुनिया की ताजा ख़बरें, गेम्स न्यूज टेक बाइक कार न्यूज वेब सीरीज व्यापार, बॉलीवुड और एजुकेशन न्यूज पब्लिश करता है।

कोई जवाब दें

कृपया अपनी टिप्पणी दर्ज करें!
कृपया अपना नाम यहाँ दर्ज करें